Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716)
-He believes that all creatures are made of a combination of small substances (Monads). All of these substances have perception and appetite (that is the inclination to perceive others). Forms (like bodies) and motions are just appearances, while the reality is that of the monads. Leibniz claims there is a pre-established harmony among the monads. Each monad is a “mirror of the same universe……One can thus say that each simple substance is an image of the universe, but that each mind is…an image of God, having knowledge not only of the facts and of their empirical connections…but also possessing knowledge of the [logical] necessity of eternal truths, [capable of] understanding as well the causes of the facts and following the Divine plan – and being able, because of that, to enter into fellowship with Him and to become a member of the city of God, the best governed realm of all, as the word itself is the most perfect of all structures, and the best-framed physically and the best-framed morally.” .
-Theodicy: we live in the best of all possible worlds.
-Alike Llull ‘Ars Magna’, Leibniz tried to create a logical language capable of creating indisputable truths. This project was undertaken in ‘De Arte Combinatoria’ (1866) in which Leibniz set forth his ‘Characteristica Universalis’ (the name of the logical language) where he essentially anticipated binary Boolean logic.
-Controversy on whether he invented calculus before Newton
 Die philophischen schriften von Gottfried Wilheim Leibniz, vol. III; C. I. Gerhardt (ed) pp 618-624- URL: http://www.leibniz-translations.com/remond1714.htm